6th International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition. 24.-26.02.2013; Loma Linda, CA, USA (Vegetarian-Nutrition - link) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol.100; No1. Supl.1 - July 2014


World Food Habits Library  - http://lilt.ilstu.edu/rtdirks (by Dirks. Robert   Prof. emer.(Anthropologists) Illinois State University )

Meat-Eating and Vegetarianism

Abrams HL. 2000. Vegetarianism: Another View. In The Cambridge World History of Food. KF Kiple, KC Ornelas, eds. Vol. 2, pp. 1564-1571. Cambridge University Press. [vegetarianism and health; primate diets; hunter gatherers; importance of meat in nutrition] 

Bwibo NO, Neumann CG. 2003. The Need for Animal Source Foods by Kenyan Children. Journal of Nutrition 133(11):3936S-3940S. [child nutrition; malnutrition; meat eating; Africa; Kenya] 

Carbonell E, Caceres I, Lozano M, et al. 2010. Cultural Cannibalism as a Paleoeconomic System in the European Lower Pleistocene. Current Anthropology 51(4):539-549. [paleolithic diet; meat eating; Europe; Spain; Burgos ] 

American cuts of beefDelgado CL. 2003. Rising Consumption of Meat and Milk in Developing Countries Has Created a New Food Revolution. Journal of Nutrition 113(11):3907S-3910S. [change; nutritional transition; meating eating]

Fa JE, Juste JL, Burn RW, et al. 2002. Bushmeat Consumption and Preferences of Two Ethnic Groups in Bioko Island, West Africa. Human Ecology 30(3):397-416. [food choice; Equatorial Guinea; Bubi; Farg]

Gittelsohn J, Vastine AE. 2003. Sociocultural and Household Factors Impacting on the Selection, Allocation and Consumption of Animal Source Foods: Current Knowledge and Application. Journal of Nutrition 133(11):4036S-4041S. [food choice; proscriptions; meat eating; mother & child nutrition]

Hamilton M. 2006. Eating Death: Vegetarians, Meat and Violence. Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 9:155-177. [meat eating; taboo; ideology]

Havlicek J, Lenochova P. 2006. The Effect of Meat Consumption on Body Odor Attractiveness. Chemical Senses 31(8):747-752(746). [diet; meat eating; olfaction; scent; smell; male attractiveness]

Jordan J. 2008. Elevating the Lowly Dumpling: From Peasant Kitchens to Press Conferences. Ethnology 47(2-3):109-121. [food use; dumplings; symbols; national identity; Europe; Austria]

Key TJ. 2006. Health Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65(1):35-41(37). [vegetarian; vegan; health]

Kirch PV, O'Day SJ. 2003. New Archaeological Insights into Food and Status: A Case Study from Pre-Contact Hawaii. World Archaeology 34(3):484-497. [archaeology; prehistory; luxury food; meat; social status; ritual; Oceania; Polynesia; Hawaii]

Larsen CS. 2003. Animal Source Foods and Human Health During Evolution. Journal of Nutrition 133(11):3893S-3897S. [meat eating; physical anthropology]

Mann N. 2000. Dietary Lean Red Meat and Human Evolution. European Journal of Nutrition 39:71-79. [meat eating; behavioral evolution]

Marean CW. 2002. Meat Eating and Human Evolution. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75(5):951-952. [paleoanthropology]

Milton K. 2003. The Critical Role Played by Animal Source Foods in Human (Homo) Evolution. Journal of Nutrition 133(11):3893S-3897S. [meat eating; paleoanthropology]

Morris C, Kirwan J. 2010. Food Commodities, Geographical Knowledges and the Reconnection of Production and Consumption: The Case of Naturally Embedded Food Products. Geoforum 41(1):131-143. [classification; knowledge; supply chains; relocalization; Europe; United Kingdom] 

Murphy SP, Allen LH. 2003. Nutritional Importance of Animal Source Foods. Journal of Nutrition 133(11):3932S-3935S. [meat eating] 

Nath J. 2010. 'God Is a Vegetarian': The Food, Health and Bio-Spirituality of Hare Krishna, Buddhist and Seventh-Day Adventist Devotees. Health Sociology Review 19(3):356-368. [vegetarianism; religion] 

Peterson D. 2003. Eating Apes. University of California Press. [meat eating; foodstuffs; bushmeat (wild game); hunting; conservation; Africa] 

Roth LK. 2005. "Beef. It's What's for Dinner": Vegetarians, Meat-Eaters and the Negotiation of Familial Relationships. Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 8(2):181-200(120). [vegetarianism; social effect; family; conflict] 

Sarri KO. 2005. Is Religious Fasting Related to Iron Status in Greek Orthodox Christians? British Journal of Nutrition 94:198-203. [iron status; deficiency; fasting; vegetarian diet; Europe; Orthodox Christians] 

Spiering M. 2006. Food, Phagophobia and English National Identity. European Studies: A Journal of European Culture, History and Politics 22:31-48. [history; imagry; meating eating; beef consumption; Europe] 

Videan E, Fritz J, Murphy J. 2007. Hunting and Occasional Consumption of Prey Items by Chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. International Journal of Primatology 28(2):477-481. [non-human primates; ape; meat eating ] 

Whorton JC. 2000. Vegetarianism. In The Cambridge History of Food. KF Kiple, KC Ornelas, eds. Vol. 2, pp. 1553-1564. Cambridge University Press. [history; vegetarianism in America; animal rights] 

Martin Winter: Ernährungskulturen und Geschlecht. Fleisch, Veganismus und die Konstruktion von Männlichkeiten.  transcript-Verlag, Bielefeld, 2023, 296.S. (open access)

Ziker JP. 2006. The Social Movement of Meat in Taimyr, Northern Russia. Nomadic Peoples 10(2):105-122. [food sharing; kinship; reciprocity; Siberia; Dolgan; Nganasan ]  

see Meat and Vegetarianism Archive for items published before 2000  Updated 11/2011

Abrams HL. 1980. Vegetarianism: An Anthropological / Nutritional Evaluation. Journal of Applied Nutrition 12:53-87. [nutritional value; vegetarianism] 

Abrams HL. 1986. Fire and Cooking as a Major Influence on Human Cultural Advancement. Journal of Applied Nutrition 38:24-29. [meat and vegetables in diet; human evolution] 

Beardsworth A, Keil T. 1992. The Vegetarian Option -- Varieties, Conversions, Motives and Careers. Sociological Review 40:253-293. [vegetarians; North America; United States] 

Black KW, Glasgow M. 1981. Social Networks and Psychological Conditions in Diet Preferences: Gormets and Vegetarians. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 2:1-9. [social relations; eating attitudes; vegetarians] 

Dwyer JT. 1974. The New Vegetarians: Group Affiliation and Dietary Strictures Related to Attitudes and Life Style". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 64:376-382. [social relations; vegetarian; taboo; North America; United States] 

Dwyer JT. 1974. The New Vegetarians: The Natural High? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65:529-536. [social relations; vegetarian; taboo; North America; United States] 

Fiddes N. 1992. Meat a Natural Symbol. Routledge. [meat; symbolism] 

Fiddes N. 1994. Social Aspects of Meat Eating. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53(2):271-279(279). [symbolic meaning; cultural importance of meat]

Hamilton W. 1987. Omnivorous Primate Diets and Human Overconsumption of Meat. In Food and Evolution. M Harris, E Ross, eds. pp. 117-132. Temple University Press. [non-human primates; hominid evolution, food preference; meat] 

Harding RO. 1973. Predation by a Troop of Olive Baboons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 38:587-592. [non-human primates; meat eating; baboon] 

Harris M. 1985. The Sacred Cow and the Abominable Pig: Riddles of Food and Culture. Simon and Schuster. [taboos; materialist theory; ecology; cannibalism; meat eating] 

Harris M. 1998. Good to Eat. Waveland. [materialist theory; taboos; ecology; food system; meat eating; cannibalism] 

Harris M, Ross E. 1978. How Beef Became King. Psychology Today 12:88-94. [meat eating; foodstuffs; cattle; North America; United States] 

Henneberg M, Sarafis V, Mathers K. 1998. Human Adaptation to Meat Eating. Human Evolution 13(3):229-. [human evolution; meat eating]

Johns T. 1990. With Bitter Herbs They Shall Eat It: Chemical Ecology and the Origins of Human Diet and Medicine. University of Arizona. [human evolution; diet; plant (vegetarian) species]

Kim E, Schroeder K, Dwyer J. 1999. Two Small Surveys, 25 Years Apart, Investigating Motivations of Dietary Choice in 2 Groups of Vegetarians in the Boston Area. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 99(5):598-. [food choice; vegetarian diet; North America; United States; Boston] 

Mann GV. 1963. Diet and Disease among the Milk and Meat Eating Masai Warriors of Tanganyika. Food and Nutrition 34:104-. [meat eating; Africa; Masai]

McDonaugh C. 1997. Breaking the Rules: Changes in Food Acceptability among the Tharu of Nepal. In Food Preferences and Taste. H Macbeth, ed. pp. 155-166. Berghahn. [change; social relations; food use; buffalo meat; South Asia] 

Messer E. 1977. The Ecology of a Vegetarian Diet in a Modernizing Mexican Community. In Nutrition and Anthropology in Action. TK Fitzgerald, ed. [ecology; vegetarian; Mexico] 

Milton K. 1999. A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-Eating in Human Evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 8(1):11-. [human evolution; meat eating] 

Nestle M. 1999. Animal V. Plant Foods in Human Diets and Health: Is the Historical Record Unequivocal? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58(2):211-218. [optimal diets; meat eating; paleolithic diet; dietary recommendations] 

Pi J, Groves C. 1972. The Importance of Higher Primates in the Diet of the Fang of Rio Muni. Man 7:238-244. [food use; ape meat; Africa; Fang] 

Pliner P, Pelchat M. 1991. Neophobia in Humans and the Special Status of Foods of Animal Origin. Appetite 16(3):205-218. [meat eating; psychology of preference] 

Pyke M. 1978. The Evolution of Animal Protein in the Human Diet. In New Protein Foods. AM Altshul, HL Wilcke, eds. Vol. 5: Seed Storage Prot, pp. 47-57. Academic Press. [meat eating; human evolution] 

Rifkin J. 1992. Beyond Beef: The Rise and Fall of Cattle Culture. New York. [foodstuffs; ranching; meat industry; North America] 

Rose L, Marshall F. 1996. Meat Eating, Hominid Sociality, and Home Bases Revisited. Current Anthropology 37:307-338. [hominid evolution; meat eating]

Rozin P, Markwith M, Stoess C. 1997. Moralization and Becoming a Vegetarian: The Transformation of Preferences into Values and the Recruitment of Disgust. Psychological Science 8:67-73. [vegetarian; preference; taboo] 

Simoons F. 1978. Traditonal Use and Avoidance of Foods of Animal Origin: A Culture-Historical View. Bioscience 28:178-184. [taboo; meat] 

Singh K. 1996. Fried Chicken's Fearsome Foes. Far Eastern Economic Review 159:30-. [change; Kentucky Fried Chicken; vegetarianism; South Asia; India]

Spencer C. 1993. The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. [history; vegetarian diet]

Stanford C. 1999. The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behavior. Princeton University Press. [meat eating; behavior evolution; non-human primates] 

Stefansson V. 1937. Food of the Ancient and Modern Stone Age Man. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 13:102-129. [diet; meat eating; cooking; Arctic; North America; Inuit] 

Stefansson V. 1960. Food and Food Habits in Alaska and Northern Canada. In Human Nutrition Historic and Scientific. I Galdston, ed. pp. 23-60-. [food habits; dietary patterns; meat; fat; North America; Alaska; Canada; Inuit (Eskimo)] 

Tambiah SJ. 1969. Animals Are Good to Think and Good to Prohibit. Ethnology 5:423-459. [food taboos; meat eating]

Teleki G. 1973. The Omnivorous Chimpanzee. Scientific American 228:32-42. [non-human primates; meat eating; chimpanzee] 

Beardsworth, AD + ET Keil: Contemporary Vegetarianism in the UK  Appetite 20:239-244 (19939 - nutritional reasons; moral, spiritual, ecological

The Vegetarian Options: Sociological Reviews, May 1992; - ca, 5% der Britten Vegetarier – 1-2 Mill


www.veganismus-forschung.de  - das Veganismus-Forschungsportal

Studien (englischsprachig) zur veganen Lebensweise:

• Beardsworth, A./Keil, T.: The Vegetarian Option: Varieties, Conversions, Motives, and Careers. In: The Sociological Review 40, 1992, S. 253-293 - ca 5% der Britten sind Vegetarier; also zw. 1-2 Millionen

• Brooks, R./Kemm, J.R.: Vegan diet and lifestyle. A preliminary study by postal questionnaire. In: The proceedings of the Nutrition Society 38(1), 1979, S. 15A

Dies scheint die bislang umfassendste (englischsprachige) Studie zu sein:

• Carmichael, R.: Becoming Vegetarian and Vegan. Rhetoric, Ambivalence and Repression in Self-Narrative. Diss. Loughborough University, 2002

• Cherry, E. (2006): Veganism as a Cultural Movement: A Relational Approach. In: Social Movement Studies, 5(2), S. 155-170

• George, K.P.: Discrimination and bias in the vegan ideal. In: Journal of agricultural & environmental ethics, Vol. 7 (1994) 1, S. 19-28

• Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M.; Sobal, Jeffery: Health Vegetarians and Ethical Vegetarians. In: Journal of nutrition education, Vol. 30 (1998), Nr. 4, S. 196-202

• Jabs, Jennifer/Sobal, Jeffery/Devine, Carol M.: Managing Vegetarianism. Identities, Norms and Interactions. In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition 39 (2000), S. 375-394

• Larsson, Christel L./Rönnlund, Ulla et al.: Veganism as status passage. The process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden. In: Appetite 41(1), 2003, S. 61-67

• Leneman, L.: No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944. In: Society and Animals 7(3), 1999, S. 219-228

• McDonald, B./Cervero, R.M./Courtenay, B.C.: An Ecological Perspective of Power in Transformational Learning. A Case Study of Ethical Vegans. In: Adult Education Quarterly, 50(1), 1999, S. 5-23

• McGrath, E. (2000): The Politics of Veganism. In: Social Alternatives, 19(4), S. 50-59

• Povey, R./Wellens, B./Conner, M.: Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence. In: Appetite 37(1), 2001, S. 15-26

• Zamir, T. (2004): Veganism. In: Journal of Social Philosophy, 35(3), S. 367-379 

Alan Beardsworth, Alan Bryman, (1999) "Meat consumption and vegetarianism among young adults in the UK: An empirical study", British Food Journal, Vol. 101 Iss: 4, pp.289 - 300 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=870470&show=pdf

Alan Beardsworth, Alan Bryman, (2004) "Meat consumption and meat avoidance among young people: An 11-year longitudinal study", British Food Journal, Vol. 106 Iss: 4, pp.313 - 327 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=870752&show=pdf

Worsley, A et al.: Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research 17 (3) 391-404 (1997)

Barr SI, Chapman GE. Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian, former vegetarian, and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Mar; 102(3): 354-360. PMID: 11902368 

Beardsworth A, Keil T. The vegetarian option: varieties, conversions, motives and careers. Sociological Review. 1992 May; 40(2): 253-293. 

Dagnelie PC, van Dusseldorp M, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JG. Effects of macrobiotic diets on linear growth in infants and children until 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Feb; 48 Suppl 1: S103-111; discussion S111-S112. PMID: 8005079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300. PMID: 8860794 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Draper A, Lewis J, Malhotra N, Wheeler E. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements? Br J Nutr. 1993 Jan; 69(1): 3-19. Erratum in: Br J Nutr. 1993 Nov; 70(3): 812. PMID: 8457537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Dwyer J. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep; 70(3 Suppl): 620S-622S. PMID: 10479241 

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40(1): 105-111. PMID: 15530587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Greenwood DC, Cade JE, Draper A, Barrett JH, Calvert C, Greenhalgh A. Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr; 54(4): 314-320. PMID: 10745282 

Hobbs SH. Attitudes, practices, and beliefs of individuals consuming a raw foods diet. Explore (NY). 2005 Jul; 1(4): 272-277. PMID: 16781548 

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrøm AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Oct; 4(5): 1005-1014. PMID: 11784414 

Nardoto GB, Silva S, Kendall C, Ehleringer JR, Chesson LA, Ferraz ES, Moreira MZ, Ometto JP, Martinelli LA.Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006 Sep; 131(1): 137-146. PMID: 16552735 

Padmadas SS, Dias JG, Willekens FJ. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: a latent class analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Apr; 9(2): 204-211. PMID: 16571174  (aus ADA Evidence Library - link)  

Vegetarianism and the Social Sciences: A Bibliography - (link)

Amato, Paul, and Sonia Partridge. 1989. The New Vegetarians: Promoting Health and Protecting Life. New York: Plenum.

Back, Kurt, and Margaret Glasgow. 1981. "Social Networks and Psychological Conditions in Dietary Preferences: Gourmets and Vegetarians." Basic and Applied Social Psychology 2:1-9.

Beardsworth, Alan, and Teresa Keil. 1992. "The Vegetarian Option: Varieties, Conversions, Motives, and Careers." The Sociological Review 40:253-293.

Beardsworth, Alan, and Teresa Keil. 1993. "Contemporary Vegetarianism in the U.K.: Challenge and Incorporation?" Appetite 20:229-234.

Cooper, Charles, Thomas N. Wise, and Lee S. Mann. 1985. "Psychological and Cognitive Characteristics of Vegetarians." Psychosomatics 26(6):521-527.

Jabs, Jennifer, Carol M. Devine, and Jeffery Sobal. 1998. "Maintaining Vegetarian Diets: Personal Factors, Social Networks, and Environmental Resourcs." Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 59(4):183-189.

Jabs, Jennifer, Carol M. Devine, and Jeffery Sobal. 1998. "Model of the Process of Becoming a Vegetarian: Health Vegetarians and Ethical Vegetarians." Journal of Nutrition Education30:196-202.

Jabs, Jennifer, Jeffery Sobal, and Carol M. Devine. 2000. "Managing Vegetarianism: Identities, Norms and Interactions." Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 39:375-394.

Hamilton, Malcolm. 2000. "Eating Ethically: 'Spiritual' and 'Quasi-Religious' Aspects of Vegetarianism." Journal of Contemporary Religion 15(1):65-83.

Kim, Esther, H., Karen M. Schroeder, Robert F. Houser, Jr., and Johanna T. Dwyer. 1999. "Two Small Surveys, 25 Years Apart, Investigating Motivations of Dietary Choice in 2 Groups of Vegetarians in the Boston Area." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95(5):598-601.

MacNair, Rachel. 1998. "The Psychology of Becoming a Vegetarian." Vegetarian Nutrition 2:96-102.

Maurer, Donna. 1995. "Meat as a Social Problem: Rhetorical Strategies in the Contemporary Vegetarian Literature." Pp. 143-164 in Eating Agendas: Food and Nutrition as Social Problems, edited by Donna Maurer and Jeffery Sobal. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. Click for excerpt.

Maurer, Donna. 2002. Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? Philadephia: Temple University Press.

Dietz, Thomas, Ann Stirling Frisch, Linda Lalof, Paul C. Stern, and Gregory Guagnono. 1995. "Values and Vegetarianism: An Exploratory Analysis." Rural Sociology 60(3):533-542.

This bibliography of vegetarianism and the social sciences was created by Donna Maurer, Ph.D., author of Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? (Temple University Press, 2002).

Maurer, Donna. 1999. "Too Skinny or Vibrant and Healthy?: Weight Management in the Vegetarian Movement." Pp. 209-229 in Weighty Issues: Fatness and Thinness as Social Problems, edited by Jeffery Sobal and Donna Maurer. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

McKenzie, John. 1971. "Profile on Vegans." Plant Foods in Human Nutrition 2(2):79-88.

Ossipow, Lawrence. 1995. "Vegetarianism and Fatness: An Undervalued Perception of the Body." Pp. 127-143 in The Social Aspects of Obesity, edited by I. de Garine and N. J. Pollack. Luxembourg, Belgium: Gordon and Breach.

Delahoyde, Michael, and Susan C. Despenich. 1994. "Creating Meat-Eaters: The Child as Advertising Target." Journal of Popular Culture 28(1):135-149.

Adams, Carol. 1991. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. New York: Continuum.

Dwyer, Johanna, Laura D.V. H. Mayer, Kathryn Dowd, Randy Frances Kandel, and Jean Mayer. 1974. "The New Vegetarians: The Natural High?" Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65:529-536.

Dwyer, Johanna, Laura Mayer, Randy F. Kandel, and Jean Mayer. 1973. "The New Vegetarians: Who Are They?" Journal of the American Dietetic Association 62:503-509.

Fiddes, Nick. 1997. "Declining Meat: Past, Present . . . and Future Imperfect?" Pp.252-266 in Food, Health, and Identity, edited by Pat Caplan. New York: Routledge.

Fiddes, Nick. 1991. Meat: A Natural Symbol. New York: Routledge.

Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H., Sue Greninger, Glenn R. Graves, and Robert K. Young. 1986. "Health Practices, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86:913-918..

Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H., Sue Greninger, and Robert K. Young. "A Demographic and Social Profile of Age- and Sex-Matched Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86:907-913

Gvion-Rosenberg, Liora. 1990. "Why Do Vegetarian Restaurants Serve Hamburgers? Toward an Understanding of a Cuisine." Semotica 80 (1-2):61-79.

Bibliography on the Psychology and Sociology of Becoming or Remaining Vegetarian and/or Vegan  http://www.rachelmacnair.com/veg-lit.html

Allen, M. W., Wilson, M., Hung Ng, S. & Dunne, M. (2000). Values and beliefs of vegetarians and omnivores. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 405-422. 
Beardsworth, A., & Keil, T. (1992). The vegetarian option: Varieties, conversions, motives and careers. The Sociological Review, 38, 252-293. 

Calkins, A. (1979). Observations on vegetarian dietary practice and social factors: The need for further research. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 74, 353-355. 

Cooper, C. K., Wise, T. N., & Mann, L. S. (1985). Psychological and cognitive characteristics of vegetarians. Psychosomatics, 26, 521-527. 

Dietz, T., Frisch, A. S., Kalof, L., Stern, P. C., & Guagnano, G. A. (1995). Values and vegetarianism: An exploratory analysis. Rural Sociology, 60, 533-542. 

Dwyer, J. T., Kandel, R. T., Mayer, L.D.V.H., & Mayer, J. (1973) The new vegetarians: Who are they? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 63, 503-509. 

Dwyer, J. T., Kandel, R. F., Mayer, L. D. V. H., & Mayer, J. (1974). The "new" vegetarians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 64, 376-382. 

Dwyer, J. T., Mayer, L. D. V. H., Dowd, K., Kandel, R. F., & Mayer, J. (1974b). The new vegetarians: The natural high? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 65, 529-536. 

Freeland-Graves, J. H., Greninger, S. A., & Young, R. K. (1986). A demographic and social profile of age-and sex-matched vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 86, 907-913. 

Freeland-Graves, J. H., Greninger, S. A., & Young, R. K. (1986). Health practices, attitudes, and beliefs of vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 86, 913-918. 

Friedman, S. (1975). On vegetarianism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 23, 396-406. 

Krizmanic, J. (1992, October). Here's who we are: A new survey reveals some surprises about America's 12 million plus (and counting) vegetarians. Vegetarian Times, 72-80 

Larsson, C. L., Rönnlund, U., Johansson, G., & Dahlgren, L. (2003). Veganism as status passage: The process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden. Appetite, 41, 61-67. 

Lester, D. (1979). Food fads and psychological health. Psychological Reports, 44, 222. 

MacNair, R. M. (1998). The psychology of becoming a vegetarian. Vegetarian Nutrition: An International Journal, 2,96-102. 

MacNair, R.M. (2001). Commentary: McDonald's "Empirical Look at Becoming Vegan." Society and Animals, 9, 63-69. 

McDonald, B. (1999). Once you know something, you can't not know it: An empirical look at becoming vegan. Society & Animals, 8, 1-23. 

Povey, R., Wellen, B. & Conner, M. (2001). Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian, and vegan diets: An examination of the role of ambivalence. Appetite, 37, 15-26. 

Rozin, P., Markwith, M., & Stoess, C. (1997). Moralization and becoming a vegetarian: The transformation of preferences into values and the recruitment of disgust. Psychological Science, 8, 67-73 

Sims, L. (1978). Food-related value-orientations of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 7, 23-25. 

Strobl, C. M., & Groll, L. (1981). Professional knowledge and attitudes on vegetarianism: Implications for practice. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 79, 568-573. 

Swinder, J. & Trocchia, P. J. (2001). Vegetarianism: Toward a greater understanding. Psychology & Marketing, 18, 1205-1240. 

Vegetarimus - was es aus Ernährungssicht zu beachten gibt. EUFIC Food Today Nr.78 (Aug_Sep 2011
 Hercberg S, Preziosi P, Galan P. (2001). Iron deficiency in Europe. Public Health Nutr 4(2B):537-545. 
 American Dietetic Association (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc 109:1266-1282. 
Koebnick C et al. (2004). Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J Nutr 134(12):3319-3326. 
Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M. (2004). Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26(4):270-271. 
Craig WJ. (2009). Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1627S-1633S. 
Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, Cunnane SC; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, ISSFAL. (2009). alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 80(2-3):85-91. Richtlinie 2008/100/EG der Kommission vom 28. Oktober 2008 zur Änderung der Richtlinie 90/496/EWG des Rates über die Nährwertkennzeichnung von Lebensmitteln hinsichtlich der empfohlenen Tagesdosen, der Umrechungsfaktoren für den Energiewert und der Definitionen (Text von Bedeutung für den EWR). OJ L 285, 29.10.2008, S. 9–12. Verfügbar unter: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008L0100:DE:HTML
Messina M, Messina V. (2010). The role of soy in vegetarian diets. Nutrients 2:855-888. 
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR. Norat T et al. (2010). WCRF/AICR Systematic Literature Review Continuous Update Project Report. The Associations between Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. 
 Sinha R et al. (2009). Meat intake and mortality. Arch Int Med 169:562-571. Rizzo NS et al. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: The Adventist Health Study 2. Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar 16. [Online-Vorabveröffentlichung]. 
Sabate J. (2003). The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health. Forum Nutr 56:218-20. 
 EUFIC Review (2008). Understanding Scientific Studies. Verfügbar unter: www.eufic.org/article/de/page/RARCHIVE/expid/Understanding-scientific-studies
/ Bhupathiraju SN, Tucker KL. (2011). Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Clin Chim Acta 412(17-18):1493-1514. Epub 7. Mai 2011. 

Key JT et al Cancer Incidence in British Vegetarians. British Journal of Cancer 101:192-197 (2009) (Download) von http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v101/n1/full/6605098a.html 

Sydney - Veganer, die auf alle tierischen Produkte verzichten, haben laut einer australischen Studie schwächere Knochen als Fleischesser und Milch-Ei-Vegetarier. http://www.derstandard.at/druck/1245820659277/Studie-Veganer-haben-schwaechere-Knochen  

Metz, M., Hoffmann, I.: Vegetarische Ernährung: das Zusammenspiel vielfältiger Auswirkungen. S.96-102; in Hoffmann, I., Schneider, K., Leitzmann, C (Hrsg). Ernährungsökologie -komplexen Herausforderungen integrativ begegnen. oekom-verlag, München

Ströhle, A., Hahn, A.: Gesünder mit vegetarischer Ernährung!? Fakten und Fiktionen. Ernährung im Fokus Nr.11/12, S.326-333 (2017)

Vegetarismus im Film Dissertation_Christiane_Boje Köln 2009