Mehrfach ungesättigte Fettsäuren

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are those that contain more than one double bond.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyunsaturated_fatty_acid

http://www.answers.com/topic/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-2

(Metaanalyse zu PUFA´s - März 2010)

Fischer, S., Glei,M. Health aspects of regular consumption of fish and omega-3-fatty acids. Ernährungsumschau Nr.9 2015 -
Was Omega-3-Fettsäuren besonders macht - link bei MLR_BW 01.06.2016 -
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (Hrsg.): Fettzufuhr und Prävention ausgewählter ernährungsmitbedingter Krankheiten – Evidenzbasierte Leitlinie. 2. Version, Bonn 2015 (link)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (Hrsg.): Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 2. Aufl., 1. Ausgabe, Bonn 2015 Arbeitskreis Omega-3 e. V.: http://www.ak-omega-3.de
- Sind Omega-3-Fettsäure-Kapseln für eine gesunde Ernährung wirklich geeignet?-link bei www.heilpraxisnet.de 06.12.2018 (nein)

- Aung, T. et al.: Associations of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement Use With Cardiovascular Disease Risks. Meta-analysis of 10 Trials Involving 77 917 Individuals.  JAMA Cardiology doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2017.5205 (31.01.2018): "This meta-analysis demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids had no significant association with fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease or any major vascular events. It provides no support for current recommendations for the use of such supplements in people with a history of coronary heart disease."

- Werz, O. et al.: Human macrophages differentially produce specific resolvin or leukotriene signals that depend on bacterial pathogenicity. Nature Communications 9, Article number: 59 (2018) doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02538-5 (04.01.2018) ⇔ Omega-3-Fettsäuren halten Immunsystem fit.  Standard (Wien) 17.01.2018

Nährstoff-(Ernährungs)Empfehlungen der EFSA
(Informationen zu Publikationen im März 2010)
Publikation - Prinzipien der RDA
Publikation - Food Group Based Recommendations
Publikation - Wasser-Emfpehlung
Publikation - Fette-Empfehlung
Publikation - Kohlenhydrate-Empfehlung

Wang, D.D. et al.: Association of Specific Dietary Fats With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.  JAMA Intern Med. Published online July 05, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2417 (Ref. Lower risk of death linked to higher unsaturated fat intake. link bei www.foodnavigator.com 06.07.2016; link bei www.gourmet-report.de 11.07.2016)

Labelling reference intake values for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids - Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00548  30 June 2009   - Scientific Opinion (download)
Summary: 
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to review and provide advice on labelling reference intake values for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
The proposed labelling reference intake values for n-3 and n-6 PUFA provided by the Commission in the terms of reference are intended to represent typical recommended daily intakes (adults). These values can be used in food labelling to facilitate comparison of the PUFA content of food products and to help convey the relative significance of the food as a source of PUFA in the context of a total daily diet, and can also be used to set appropriate conditions of use for health claims on PUFA. For practical application, a single reference intake value is proposed for each nutrient using rounded values for ease of calculation. 
The PUFA for which advice on labelling reference intakes is requested are the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA), the long chain n-3 PUFA (mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), and the n-6 PUFA (mainly linoleic acid (LA)).
Labeling reference intake values for PUFA may be derived from science-based intake recommendations for the general population established by national and international authorities taking into account observed intakes in the population. For these PUFA, intake recommendations for the general population are sometimes aimed at the avoidance of deficiency symptoms but more usually are based on evidence of relationships between intake and neurodevelopment and/or cardiovascular health. PUFA intake recommendations for the general population established by national authorities in different EU countries are not uniform and reflect the different criteria on which they are based. 

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids 
The n-3 fatty acid most abundant in food is ALA. The proposed labelling reference intake value for ALA (2g) is towards the upper end of the range of average intakes observed in adults in some European countries (0.7 - 2.3 g/d or ~0.4-0.8 E%). Intake recommendations for ALA based on considerations of cardiovascular health and neurodevelopment are about 1 E%, corresponding to 2 - 3 g ALA/day for energy intakes 1800-2700 kcal/day. The Panel considers that the proposed labelling reference intake value for the n-3 PUFA ALA (2g) is consistent with recommended intakes for individuals in the general population in some European countries based on considerations of cardiovascular health.

Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
The quantitatively most important long-chain n-3 PUFA in the diet are EPA and DHA. 
Most recent evidence shows that the intake of EPA plus DHA is negatively related to cardiovascular risk in a dose-dependent way up to about 250mg/d (1–2 servings of oily fish per week) in healthy populations. 
The proposed labelling reference intake value for long chain n-3 PUFA (200 mg) is lower than this value, as are observed average intakes of EPA plus DHA in adults in some European countries, which vary between 80mg/d and 420 mg/d.
The Panel proposes 250mg/d as the labelling reference intake value for the long-chain n-3 PUFAs EPA plus DHA, which is in agreement with most recent evidence on the relationship between the intake of these fatty acids and cardiovascular health in healthy populations. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 PUFA mainly include LA, and to a lesser extent arachidonic acid (ARA). 
The proposed labelling reference intake value of 6g of n-6 PUFA is lower than mean intakes observed in Europe (between 7 and 19 g/d). It is also lower than the lower bound of intake recommended for individuals in the general population by some national and international authorities based on considerations of cardiovascular health (4 E%, equivalent to 8-12 g/d for adults). 
The Panel proposes 10g as labelling reference intake value for the n-6 PUFA LA, which is consistent with recommended intakes for adult individuals in the general population in European countries based on considerations of cardiovascular health.

Omega-6-Fettsäuren erniedrigen Risiko an Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen zu sterben  - EUFIC Today 10.02.1025 -

Farvid, MS. et al.:  Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Circulation, 2014; 130 (18): 1568 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010236  -  ScienceDaily 28.10.2014 -

Jakobsen, MU et al.: Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies.   Am J Clin Nutr (February 11, 2009). doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27124
Background: Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake increases plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations; therefore, intake should be reduced to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, requires substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance. 
Objective: We investigated associations between energy intake from monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and carbohydrates and risk of CHD while assessing the potential effect-modifying role of sex and age. Using substitution models, our aim was to clarify whether energy from unsaturated fatty acids or carbohydrates should replace energy from SFAs to prevent CHD. 
Design: This was a follow-up study in which data from 11 American and European cohort studies were pooled. The outcome measure was incident CHD. 
Results: During 4–10 y of follow-up, 5249 coronary events and 2155 coronary deaths occurred among 344,696 persons. For a 5% lower energy intake from SFAs and a concomitant higher energy intake from PUFAs, there was a significant inverse association between PUFAs and risk of coronary events (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.97); the hazard ratio for coronary deaths was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.89). For a 5% lower energy intake from SFAs and a concomitant higher energy intake from carbohydrates, there was a modest significant direct association between carbohydrates and coronary events (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14); the hazard ratio for coronary deaths was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). MUFA intake was not associated with CHD. No effect modification by sex or age was found.  Conclusion: The associations suggest that replacing SFAs with PUFAs rather than MUFAs or carbohydrates prevents CHD over a wide range of intakes. 

Makrides, M. et al.: Fish oil and other prostaglandin precursor supplementation during pregnancy for reducing pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Cochrane Review, 2018 DOI dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003402 . ScienceDaily 15.11.2018

Omega-3-Fettsäuren - link zu privater Website - www.inutro.com -