Ernährungsverhalten bei Belastungssituationen (Stress)

Stress (engl.: Druck, Anspannung; lat.: stringere: anspannen) bezeichnet zum einen durch spezifische äußere Reize (Stressoren) hervorgerufene psychische und physische Reaktionen bei Lebewesen, die zur Bewältigung besonderer Anforderungen befähigen, und zum anderen die dadurch entstehende körperliche und geistige Belastung. 1936 hatte Hans Selye den Begriff aus der Physik entlehnt, um die „unspezifische Reaktion des Körpers auf jegliche Anforderung zu benennen.
(wikipedia)

Es gibt positive Reize (Eustress) und negative (Distress).

Die primären Reize - (Informationen - Wahrnehmung von Informationen) werden in einer ersten Stufe bewertet (Bewertung von Informationen)
- unwichtig / wichtig  - postiv bzw. negativ (hohes Risiko, gefährlich)
nächste Stufe der Bewertung - verfügbare Resourcen (Reaktionsmöglichkeiten) - wenn geringe Möglichkeiten - wird diese als Stress bewertet
- Stressbewältigungsstrategien (Coping)
(Stressmodell von Lazarus)
(siehe auch Salutogenese)

Dis-Stress beeinflusst den Stoffwechsel, (über) fordert das Immunsystem; erhöht das  Risiko von Erkrankungen allgemien und psychische Erkrankungen besonders - "burn-out", Depression. 

Stress und Nahrungsaufnahme - EUFIC Food Today No,2, 2015 - Manche Menschen essen als Reaktion auf Stress weniger, manche mehr.   - Stress and eating behaviour - EUFIC Food Today No.9/2015
Torres A & Nowson C (2007) Relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity. Nutrition 23(11-12):887-894.
Adam TC & Epel ES (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behaviour 91:449-458.
Dallman MF (2010). Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 21(3):159-165.
Brunner EJ, Chandola T & Marmot (2007). Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II study. American Journal of Epidemiology 165(7):828-837.
Block J, et al. (2009). Psychosocial stress and change in weight among US adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 170(2):181-192.
O’Reilly GA, et al. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obesity Reviews 15:453-461.
Greeno CG &Wing RR (1994) Stress-induced eating. Psychological Bulletin 115: 444-464
Lattimore P & Caswell N (2004) Differential effects of active and passive stress on food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Appetite 42: 167-173
Polivy J and Herman CP (1999) Distress and dieting: why do dieters overeat? International Journal of Eating Disorder 25: 153-164
Laitinen J & Sovio U (2002) Stress-related eating and drinking behaviour and body mass index and predictors of this behaviour. Preventive Medicine 34: 29-39

Nach einer aktuellen Studie essen Betroffene häufiger aus Kummer und Stress und können daher ihr Gewicht schwerer kontrollieren. - aid aktuell - 09.03.2016 -  Hübner, C. et al.: Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis . Appetite doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.017
Spiegel-Titel Nr.7_2013 - Dick durch Stress (link) (dazu link zu Spiegel-TV Videos)

Verschiedene Menschen Typen - "die einen fressen den Ärger in sich hinein"; die anderen reagieren sich ab, "explodieren" Type A / Type B

Stress-Management - wikipedia -
Infos - Apotheken--Umschau 1_2011 (im Archiv - Fragebogen; Stressoren / Bewältigungsstrategien - scan Abb)

Weitere Literatur:

Scott,C, Johnstone,AM: Stress and eating behaviour. Implications for obesity. Obesity Facts 5: 277-287 (2012) Review Article – Food Addiction: Fact or Fiction? – the NeuroFAST Project

The World Health Organisation: The World Health Report; Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. WHO, Geneva, 2002.

Rogers PJ: Joint Symposium with the British Dietetic Association on ˜Implementing Dietary Change; Theory and Practice" Session 3. Changing eating habits. Eating habits and appetite control: a psychobiological perspective. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:59–67.
Newman E, O. et al.: Daily hassles and eating behaviour: The role of cortisol reactivity status. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007;32:125–132.
O´Connor DB et al.:  Effects of daily hassles and eating style on eating behavior. Health Psychol 2008;27:S20–S31.
Wardle J, et al.: Stress, dietary restraint and food intake. J Psychosom Res 2000;48:195–202.
Zellner DA et al.: Food selection changes under stress. Physiol Behav 2006;87:789–793.
Overgaard D, et al.: Psychological workload and body weight: Is there an association? A review of the literature. Occup Med 2004;54:35–41. 
Mind: Stress and Mental Health in the Workplace. Mind Week Report, May 2005.
Bradley C, Fisher S, Reason J: Stress and Diabetes; Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health. Oxford, Wiley & Sons, 1988.
Schulte P, et al.: Work, Obesity and Occupational Safety and Health. American J Public Health 2007;97:428–436.
Karasek R: Job strain and the prevalence and outcome of coronary artery disease. Circulation 1996;94:1140–1141. 
Harrington JM: Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:68–72. 
Lowden A, et al.: Eating and shift work – effects on habits, metabolism, and performance. Scand J Work Environ Health 2010;36:150–162. 
Wallis DJ, Hetherington MM: Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress. Appetite 2009;52:355–362. 
Dallman MF, Pecoraro NC, La Fleur SE: Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain Behav Immun 2005;19:275–280.   
Oliver KG, Huon GF, Zadro L, Williams KD: The role of interpersonal stress in overeating among high and low disinhibitors. Eating Behav 2001;2:19–26. 
Heatherton TF, Herman CP, Polivy J: Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;60:138–143. 
Bento C, et al.: Perfectionism and eating behaviour in Portuguese adolescents. Eur Eating Disord Rev 2010;18:328–337. 
Bardone-Cone AM, Wonderlich SA, Frost RO, Bulik CM, Mitchell JE, Uppala S, Simonich H: Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;27:384–405. 
Jones CJ, Harris G, Leung N, Blissett J, Meyer C: The effect of induced stress on the relationship between perfectionism and unhealthy eating attitudes. Eating Weight Disord 2007;12:e39–e43. 
Podar I, Hannus A, Allik J: Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: a comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples. J Pers Assess 1999;73:133–147. 
Heaven PCL, Mulligan K, Merrilees R, Woods T, Fairooz Y: Neuroticism and conscientiousness as predictors of emotional, external, and restrained eating behaviors. Int J Eating Disord 2001;30:161–166. 
O´Connor DB et al.:  Perceived changes in food intake in response to stress: the role of conscientiousness. Stress Health 2004;20:279–291. 
Allison DB, Heshka S: Emotion and eating in obesity? A critical analysis. Int J Eating Disord 1993;13:289–295. 
Kaplan HI, Kaplan HS: The psychosomatic concept of obesity. JJ Nerv Ment Dis 1957;125:181–201.
Geliebter A, Aversa A: Emotional eating in overweight, normal weight, and underweight individuals. Eating Behav 2003;3:341–347. 
Waters A, Hill A, Waller G: Bulimics´responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state? Behav Res Ther 2001;39:877–886. 
Smith A, Johal SS, Wadsworth E, Davey Smith G, Peters T: Scale of Occupational Stress: the Bristol Stress and Health at Work Study. HSE Contract Research Report 265/2000, 2000.
Blaug R, Kenyon A, Lekhi R: Stress at Work: A Report Prepared for the Work Foundation´ Principal partners, London, 2007.(link)
FORESIGHT: Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Project Report, 2nd ed. 2007.
The Scottish Government: Healthy Eating, Active Living: An Action Plan to Improve Diet, Increase Physical Activity and Tackle Obesity (2008–2011). 2008. (download)

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