Sie sind hier: Frischware | Vorlesung PHN-CN | Seminar 2021


Challenges of the Future and possible Answers


The master course "Food Society Nutrition" (Spring 2021) (former Global Food Policy) aims to describe the interdependence of food, health, consumer, culture, policies, trade, environment and health perspectives. The course covers special “food-issues”;  being this year  convenience food  and appreciation of food in a global food perspective.
Due to the Corona Pandemic - COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland - all activities are conducted digitally.

The theme of my "Webinar" is  "Challenges of the future and possible answers".

(1) My professional background (Biography) -
(2) "from nutrition complex to nutrition system" -
- my website - is my tool to structure the field of nutrition research (Text is mainly german )
(3) Challenges of the future: Sustainability (UN goals) - important part - Planatery Health Diet (ways to reach dietary goals)

(1) My professional background (Biography) -
Privilege of a Senior - looking backwards - explanations of life course - knowing why - experience -
  Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards. (Kierkegaard)
but forecasting future - ?? (e.g. plans for 2020 on turn of the year - no idea of Corona) (now 2021 - will be an end of Corona? -  are there learned lessons - for yourself - in your society - in a global world?)
Carpe diem (wikipedia) -  "Die Zukunft ist noch nicht geschrieben. Sie ist, was wir daraus machen."  (Austrian Stamp - Januar 2016 - Presse ) (Zitate)
Different domiciles - (Forschungsorte) - homeland - Germany (different "Germanies") - not a native of any place
Notes on early imprints of my characteristic
- Collecting (stamps, philately) -
- Wortspiele -play on words - Kabarett  (Karl Valentin, Werner Finck)   - Cartoons -
- jazz music - variations (Freedom + Discipline)

Education - Occupational Career
- Study of Chemistry - Biochemistry - Vitamin B12 
(my plan: research in neurochemistry - biochemical pathways in brain)
- First employment: Bumbuli - Usambara Mountains, Tanzania - East Africa (1969-1971)
- Max-Planck-Nutrition-Research Unit - (Kraut)
Research on Food Composition; Nutritional Status Surveys; Nutrition Rehabilitation; Public Health Nutriton - Evaluation
(nutrients - food - home - basic need - culture) - learning different views - ecology - anthropology etc.
Collecting - literature - Congres in Malawi (Publication) -  Oltersdorf Collection (link)
- Nutrition Epidemiology  (Jelliffe) (Burkitt) -

- Second employment: Giessen University (1971-1991)
(Cremer) (Leitzmann)
- Research - animal experiments - interactions - research model expanding - collecting - Review of Interactions
- from animal experiments of epidemiology - interdisciplinary research  (EMSIG) - nutrition system
- Teaching - Nutrition in developing countries - collecting: World Nutrition Publications - "World Nutrition Expert" (Welthungerhilfe - Freedom from Hunger) (Publikation) (UNICEF) (Publikation)
- Lecturing: Assessment of Nutritional Status of the Community
- Nutrition Ecology (Publication)

- Third employment: Stuttgart-Karlsruhe
Director and Professor - Instituts für Ernährungsökonomie und -soziologie (IÖS) der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung (BFE) (Okt 1991 - Aug 2007) (Nutrition Economy and Nutrition Sociology) (former: Federal Research Center for Home Economcis) (E.Stübler)
(now: Institut für Ernährungsverhalten (Nutrition Behaviour) - Max-Rubner-Institut, Karlsruhe)
Possibilities to organize nutrition behaviour research on national (e.G. AGEV) and international base (e.g. IUNS-Committee)
- Activities in public health nutrition research (EU-Projects)
- Finally: Initiative for Second National Nutrition Survey (NVS)

(2) "From nutrition complex to nutrition system"
- my website -  - (since 2007 - pages in April 2021 - 6624)

Nutrition is both: a basic science (why-research) - the functions of nutrients -
an applied science - how we apply the results into functions -  "What foods and how much humans should eat to stay healthy - and since a few decades ago - to sustain.

Nutrition is a total phenomenon   (total social fact(Marcel Mauss)

Consequently - the object of nutrition research is unlimited, boundless; (information overload)
nutrition research has to be interdisciplinary (Schichten-Modell - layers of sciences - from physics to cultural sciences)(Chart)
( The Powers of Ten films are two short American documentary films written and directed by Charles and Ray Eames. ) (YouTube)
- biopsychosociocultural models (EMSIG-Model)

My instrument for orientation in the huge "space" of Nutrition Research (Ernährungsforschungsraum) is a system with four dimensions  (Chart)
- Food (Lebensmittel)  -
- Human (Menschen) -
- Environment (Umwelt
- Time (Zeit)

Dimension Human: Everybody needs food - basic need - (Maslow - Chart) each individual has (almost) the same requirements for nutrients.
Differences - individuality - functions of organs - health+wellbeing - longevity.
(amount of food/beverages of an adult - 2-3kg/day or 1 to per year - 3000kcal/day or 1 million per year) -  (Fritz Kahn)   (Kahn Info Bild ) (Informationsgraphik) ( enormous performance of the organismus) - (Karlsruher Ernährungspyramide - Nutrition Pyramid) (Das essen wir alles in einem Jahr. Watson 19.09.2018)
(World Population - still increasing) (Population Clock
(YouTube - American Museum of Natural History - link

Dimension Food:
- single nutrients -  supplements ("chemicals") - processed food: sugar, starch, lipids
- multitude of foods - numerous ingredients (chart)- nutrients and non-nutrients, bioactive substances - interactions
(dual interactions between 40 nutrients need 240 studies (about 1012) (World population 8 109) - Abrams, J.T.: The need for co-ordination of research in nutrition. Internat J Vit Nutr. Res 48: 219-224 (1978)  (OLT112)
- cooking - processed foods - dishes - menus - meals
-  - (⇒⇒ Cooking) (recipies of the world - data bank)
- Food Habit - diets
- National cuisines  (e.g. mediterran diet)
Enough food for all humans - world nutrition - e.g.  EAT- Lancet-Commission
Primary production (Plants) - (Agriculture)
Food Processing chains - Storage - Distribution - Packaging - Trade - Waste management (Food Technology)
Food Storage (distribution over time - from harvest to harvest)
Food Distribution (over areas - trade) (packaging - e.g. plastic)
Food Waste
Different Qualities of Food (Chart)  (Werte der LM)
- new development - bigdata - metabolom - om-era.

No human can live alone - humans survive in different environments
Dimension Environment:
- Clothing
- Family/Household (micro level)
- Communities (villages, towns, countries) (meso level)
- continental-global regions (macro level)   (Schichten-Modell - Lobstein)
- Settings (home, economic, leisure)
- Communication
- Mobility
- Ethics + Culture (Policy)
(one pole: individualized personalized nutrition - the other pole: regional/national - global/planetary nutrition

Live is a balance - not static, but dynamic processes of complex systems (biopsychosocialcultural model)
(static system - a chess play - no action - no effects - time independent) -
It is impossible to take no action in the food system / - no breathing - no oxygen - dead within few minutes / no water - dead within a few days /  - no eating - refuse food - has severe consequences  (Starving - Hunger)

Nutrition System has a
Dimension Time 
- individual biography
- historical developments in food    (Mutationen der Menschheit)
- food chains -  (Franz Hohler - Weltuntergangs-Kette, 1974)
- daily and seasonal cycles - rhythms -
- life events   (Chart - Life Course)
- prognosis - nutrition planning    (Publication)
("environment" of past  <action, stimulus>  ⇒ genom imprinting - epigenetic <reaction>)

One principle - information management (Modus 2 - Rhizom)  (traditional - encyclopedia from A to Z)
- relationsship between different parts (links) - "growing were is need"  (up to know in Ernährungdenkwerkstatt about 6620 sides)
Objects viewed from different sites (Objektivität) (not only the common ones)  (Drudel)

(3) Challenges of the future:
Sustainability (UN goals) - (The Limits to Growth (LTG) is a 1972 report of the Club of Rome)
- Historical note:  Hans Carl von Carlowitz  -  He is considered to be the father of sustainable yield forestry (1713)  (Philately)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. (wikipedia - engl. wikipedia) (UN-Post  Stamp Block 24.10.2016 - 17 stamps for each SDG one)
- Mapping the Global Goals for Sustainable Development and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. UNICEF-Report (download) (2016)
- Zero Hunger -  Sustainable Development Goal 2
- Good health and well-being -  Sustainable Development Goal 3 -
(new stamp in Switzerland - 06.05.2021 - Nachhaltigkeit - (Lupe Nr.2/2021) (link)  (Abb) (Abb)

The global thinking (global aims) will lead to regional planning and local/individual acting.

Every human has to use resources of the planet earth to survive, one of the basic needs is food. Every single person eats every day the whole life. Food production needs resources - soil, water, energy etc.
There is only one planet for all species. The historical development show we humans are the main actors on earth, we changed environment (since Neolithic Revolution)  (Pierre Bertaux in the 1960s; today e.g.: Yuval Noah Harari:  Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (2014)
- Early global relationships - trade with spices, etc. (Magellan)  /  Hobhouse H.: Seeds of wealth: four plants that made men rich. Macmillan/Pan Books; 2003. (Lebensmittelgeschichte) (Ernährungspolitik-Geschichte)  Migration - Colinization
- The actual timeperiod is called Anthropocene.  (wikipedia)
- The changes (Wandel)  within the last few decades show - in parallel with the human population growth - increase exponentially; and can be witness by documents - that is evident based - not fake news.
- ( )  - - Wandel -     -  warming stripes -

Food has ecological "foot prints" / virtual water / ecological backpack (Ökobilanzen) -   Food production actual (FAO) - link (Food and Agricutural Data - FAOSTAT) - link  Crops - link Food Balances -
Food Security
The food needs for humans are known (dietary goals  - nutrient requirements - dietary allowances - food-group-based guidelines).
Food Balance needed - divergences are risky - to low - Hunger Disease - to high - Lifestyle diseases - Non-communicable Diseases.
(one problem world wide: Nutrition in Transition)
- The balance is as well needed for "planetary health" - the sustainability.
The mutual consideration of health and enviroment is known for a long time - e.g.  The First Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy WHO European Region 2000-2005. WHO, Europe (2001) (European Health 21) (Elisabeth Helsing).
The up-to-date discussion is stimulated by the basic documents of the  EAT–Lancet Commission
Willett, W. et al.: Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet (16.01.2019)
(see also Nachhaltige Ernährungsweisen  / Klimadiäten / -  global health - planetary health  )

Goals (Ziele)  (dietary goals)
- Stop the growth of population  and  of "consumption"  (basic needs)
"Earth provides enough to satisfy every man ́s need, but not for every man ́s greed." - M Gandhi)
- less consumption for many people of the world, not for all  (the poor should get chances to consume more)  (Chart - Eat-Lancet)
- less animal products - more plant-based  (shorten the( (food) chains)
- regional, local food production - "food miles"
- digitalization of life (smart) -  e@life - smart home - "Internet of Things" -
- personalized nutrition (metabolism controlled externally) ("biochips") (RFID)

Future goals reached only in global cooperation, there is only one earth  (global problems )
Global co-working (UN - global rules) - (not economic driven ) - the natural resources (water, soil, atmosphe - climate, ressouces) are used by all species (not only for (rich) humans).  - Alternative economic theories  e.g. Sustainomics
- Future research - not only why - it is needed much more "how-research" (action research) (social marketing, etc)

The huge task is to change societal rules (habits), but this is possible - it is shown by looking back in historical developments.
It is impossible is to change physical and chemical laws (natural constants - molecular weight, gravity, etc), these laws are universal, global, apply for all. But our socio-culturals laws - the legislation - is the man-made laws and can be changed; they are the results of political debate (stakeholders) (democracy). Even constitutional law can be changed. New Situation need new debates - about food tax, food marketing, regulation for food production, etc. (continous amendments - e.g. Codex Alimentarius, saftey limits, allowances, etc.)
The nature is a global network - air, water, CO2, climate... - there are no natural borders. Current science is mainly shaped to look in details (metapher: Microscope), but for the future problem - sustainabilty, limits of growth - we need to consider interrelations (metapher: Macroscope) (macro level - Schichtenmodell)

Regional planning:  Public Health Nutrition - nutrition program - nutrition councils  (meso level)  (regions, towns, communities) (Ernährungsstadt-Plan(ung)  (Gemeinde-Aktionen)
Acting (personal level, micro level) shoud be supported by local/regional policy - "make the good choice to the easy choice" - facilitate the good - to hinder the "bad"

New ideas - shorten food chains - (from food analphabet /literacy - convenient) - to self-reliant person - (do it yourself)
If we were to divide the total global surface area of arable land by the number of people living on the planet, each person would get 2000m² (half an acre). Everything we need, must grow on this field… -  - - - -
Facilitate social networking -
- digital networks - communication revolution (actual use for boosting consumption - how we can control - as a politcial democratic society  - basics for life - should not uncontrolled in hands of economists - "Gemeingut/Allmende" (commons property - creative commons - soil/ground - water - housing - safety... - the basic needs  /  open access in science
(How Big Tech got so big: Hundreds of acquisitions. Washington Post 21.04.2021 - "Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google — known as the Big 4 — now dominate many facets of our lives.")
New human resources management - social marketing  - "Nudging" -
Support from "above" - (social food policy) - supportive environment -
- the needed changes can be jugded as utopic, but there are hopes  - green policy is gaining recognition.
- Hope: in this Crisis - Corona - Pandemie - many important lessons - the market cannot rule alone the problems - the current problems were uncovered and came in focus - the current laws and rules can be changed in short time (compare the changes within the last 15 months) - will be the world after corona the same is before - or can we learn for the "environmental pandemics")
- Harari, Y.N.: The world after coronavirus.  link bei 20.03.2020  "Entire countries serve as guinea-pigs in large-scale social experiments... we face two particularly important choices. The first is between totalitarian surveillance and citizen empowerment. The second is between nationalist isolation and global solidarity. ...   In their battle against the coronavirus epidemic several governments have already deployed the new surveillance tools. ....  As a thought experiment, consider a hypothetical government that demands that every citizen wears a biometric bracelet that monitors body temperature and heart-rate 24 hours a day. .... Over the past few years, irresponsible politicians have deliberately undermined trust in science, in public authorities and in the media." "Both the epidemic itself and the resulting economic crisis are global problems. ... They can be solved effectively only by global co-operation. We must hope that the current epidemic will help humankind realise the acute danger posed by global disunity."

(Task Proposal:  every man - eats and drinks (look to basic needs - human requiremnents) - (make a sketch of your annual food consumption - 365 days)
- reflects - on selected food items (or household - housing;  basic equipment -  - the food chain - from field/soil/Boden to table
(resources in food chain - early work - energy flow / water - virtual water etc)
- Soil - -
- Footprint -  -
- Water - -
CO2 -   -  - 

(4) Appreciation of food - the different values of food

- Wahrnehmung der LM-Qualität - Perception of Food / - different quality aspects of foods - (Bewertungsproblematik - Tortenbild - englisch)
- Food as symboly - food "messages"
neue Trends - personalisierte Ernährung
- digitalisiertes Leben - e@life - smart home -
(different "views" before action (science) vs Consumer  "simple" eat or not to eat) (Handlungstheorie)

Wertschätzung - Different Qualities of Food (Chart)  (Werte der LM)
- nutritonal value
- pleasure value (Taste, appearance - food porn)
- health value
- social value
- economic value
- cultural-ideological value
- usability (handling) value
- convenience value
- ecological value
- Bekömmlichkeit (salubriousness - digestability, food <in>tolerance) (disgust - psychonutrition)

(these values are related to dimensions human - environment - time (Change - Wandel)

- Evaluation of the food - the meal (POEM)  - of a Syrian family in the war time situation - see Report of Aaref Watad (AFP):  Ramadan 2020 -  In Pictures: Iftar in the ruins of the Syrian town of Ariha. Aljazeera 06.05.2020 (TAZ 09.05.2020 - S.2)

Learning  - Nutrition Competence (Applying - Hand - Training) - Nutrition Education/Communication (Brain) - (Ernährungsanalphabeten)

Change of Appreciation of food -
during life cycle
during history
global communication - global food - global values (Nutrition in Transition)
- loss/disappearance of (indigenous) local culture - foods - dishes
(UNESCO - world heritage) (regional)

Bentham, J. et al.: Multidimensional characterization of global food supply from 1961 to 2013. Nature Food Vol.1: 70-75 (Jan 2020)  ⇔ "Global diets are converging, with benefits and problems."  link bei 13.01.2020 - Changes for 18 foodgroups in 171 countries

Changes with time - Wandel -
traditional home economics - use food complete, no wastage (food security)
modern (marketing) values - no restrictions - eating everytime everywhere (food in armlength) - "making the satiesfied hungry" -  "Die Satten hungrig machen"
- after harvest - Tage - Erntedankfest / Harvest festival / thanksgivingday - 
- Appreciation of work along the food chain /  Harvesting / working conditions (social value) (History - slavery - modern slavery)
Appreciation of food in cultures (Malerei - Still Life)
- Food on stamps -

Methods to study Appreciation of food:
Market Research - what are consumer buying, to which prize - Monitoring - "digital big data)
- Important place - Point of sale (POS)

"Dumping Prize" - "Schnäppchen (Burgain buy)"
Advertisement from Edeka "Essen hat einen Preis verdient: den niedrigsten. (link) - "Unerträglich" Bauern Proteste. Münchner Merkur 29.01.2020 / Tagesschau 02.02.2020
Faire Preise: Wie viel ist uns das Essen wert? link bei 02.03.2020
O’Shea, L.: Those we once called ‘unskilled’ are key workers. The labour we really need. (Covid-19) Le Monde diplomatique May 2020

Howard G Schutz - Schutz, Howard G. et al.: Food and Food-Use Classification Systems. Food Technology, 29: 52-64 (March 1975) - Schutz, Howard G. et al.: Multivariate analyses and the measurement of consumer attitudes and perceptions. Food Technology 42(11) 141-144 (1988)
(Publikation -  OLT Feb 1979)